Is it a good idea to train same muscle groups two days in a row? The answers is yes and no, as it all depends on the way you do it.
Personally I do train the same muscles or body parts all the time. Even with lifts you’re “can’t do that” with like deadlifts. And doing so I regularly hit new PR’s. The idea of training divided into muscle groups/body parts is something I am not a big fan of. The last time I trained like this was over 10 years ago. Most bodybuilders work their chest one day, arms the other etc. If you think about it, you are actually working your arms on chest day to some degree, so you are basically training the same muscle group two days in a row.
However, if you push your limits and overdo training of certain muscle group in terms of volume and intensity, you are likely to get sore and shouldn’t really train that same group a day after day. In fact, this kind of training could lead to injuries and negatively effect your results, so you have to be careful not to over-train.
Having said that, you still can train same muscle groups every day, but the volume and intensity need to be tuned down. This way, you are actually working on the skill of the particular movement and trying to get better at it each day.
How do you know if you’ve done too much and those muscles need rest? Soreness can help but its certainly not the best factor. Biofeedback training can give you the answer. You pose the question and your body will tell you the answer.